For example: If an archaeologist is studying past civilizations, the archaeologist may be able to say that in a particular location the ruins of one civilization were found to have been built on another and so the layers unearthed in an excavation convey the sequence of historical occupations without revealing the actual dates.However, carbon dating is an absolute dating technique that can give an estimate of the actual age of an artifact and thus an estimate of the age of other objects in the same layer.Absolute dating is a method of estimating the age of a rock sample in years via radiometric techniques.Short Answer: The term relative dating is distinguished from absolute dating to make it clear that one does not get a specific estimate of the age of an object from relative dating, but one does get such an estimate of true age from absolute dating.The age is based on the half-life of the isotopes (their rate of decay over time).When the age is determined in this manner, it is called the absolute age, from absolute dating techniques.
The radiometric techniques that give absolute dating estimates are based on radioactive decay of elements such as uranium. Looking at how rock formations are structured, a geologist may be able to say which rock was developed in which layer in a particular order but not be able to determine that actual geologic age of the layers.
For example, carbon dating is used to determine the age of organic materials.
Once something dies, it ceases taking in new carbon-14, and the existing carbon-14 within the organism decays into nitrogen at a fixed rate.
The circumstances of the object may allow one to say that one object is older than another without being able to assign a particular age to the objects.
Very often historical evidence is found in layers and older layers are further down that the top layers.
If you have 3 layers of rock, the one in the middle is younger than the bottom one and older than the top one.