Locally developed scripts such as Grantha and Pallava script induced the development of many native scripts such as Khmer, Javanese Kawi script, Baybayin and Thai.Tamil visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres and the productions of images of deities in stone and bronze.
The classical Tamil literature, referred to as Sangam literature is attributed to the period between 200 BCE and 300 CE.
Music too is divided into classical Carnatic form and many popular genres.
Although most Tamils are Hindus, many practice what is considered to be folk Hinduism, venerating a plethora of village deities. A small Jain community survives from the classical period as well.
The Chola dynasty successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia like Malaysia, Southern Thailand and Indonesia.
Pallava traders and religious leaders travelled to Southeast Asia and played an important role in the cultural Indianisation of the region.
The Tamil kings and chiefs were always in conflict with each other mostly over territorial hegemony and property.