In 2011, an estimated 29.3% of female sex workers were living with HIV.19 By comparison, 2011 findings from the Sex Workers Outreach Project showed an HIV prevalence of 30% among female sex workers and 40% among male sex workers.20.
This is echoed in a 2015 study of female sex workers in Nairobi, which found around one-third to be living with HIV.21 However, female sex workers are reportedly better at protecting themselves from HIV transmission compared to other groups who are vulnerable to HIV such as men who have sex with men.
Between 20, the number of pregnant women tested for HIV increased from 68% to 92%.33 Kenya is widely regarded as one of sub-Saharan Africa’s HIV prevention success stories.
Annual new HIV infections are less than a third of what they were at the peak of the country's epidemic in 1993.34 In 2016, there were an estimated 62,000 new HIV infections in Kenya, following a trend of falling figures year on year since 2013 which witnessed 100,000 new infections across the country.35 The National AIDS Control Council (NACC) is the body responsible for co-ordinating the response to the HIV epidemic in Kenya.
This is mainly due to the rapid scaling up of HIV treatment and care.3 Kenya’s HIV epidemic is often referred to as generalised – affecting all sections of the population including children, young people, adults, women and men.Explore this page to read more about populations most affected by HIV, testing and counselling, HIV prevention programmes, antiretroviral treatment programmes, tuberculosis and HIV, HIV stigma and discrimination, funding the response and the future of HIV and AIDS in Kenya.Kenya has the joint fourth-largest HIV epidemic in the world (alongside Mozambique and Uganda) in terms of the number of people living with HIV, which was 1.6 million people in 2016.By 2013, this had increased to 6.4 million.30 Although annual testing rates have nearly doubled since 2008/2009, there remains a significant disparity between men and women.In 2014, 53% of women had tested for HIV in the past 12 months and received their results, compared to 45% of men.31 To address this, there has been a concerted effort to increase testing rates among Kenyan men, with community-based testing programmes proving particularly successful.32 Like HTC coverage among the general population, testing rates among pregnant women have risen substantially.In 2013, a group of Kenyan civil society organisations presented a report to the Committee Against Torture stating that people who are LGBT in Kenya face constant harassment, violence and death threats by police officials, who also blackmail them with threats of arrest if they refuse to pay bribes.12 In 2011, an estimated 18.3% of people who inject drugs (sometimes referred to as PWID) in Kenya were living with HIV.13The majority of people who inject drugs are concentrated in specific geographical areas such as Nairobi and Mombasa.14 Low condom use and unsafe injecting practices exacerbate transmission.15In 2012, Kenya introduced needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy to help reduce HIV transmission among people who inject drugs.16.