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Narcotics have also been used for attenuation of pressor response during laryngoscopy and intubation and are believed to provide a comfortable recovery from anaesthesia.[1]Ideally the recovery should be smooth and gradual and free from pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), shivering, deep sedation or respiratory depression and should enable a shorter stay in recovery room.In addition, there should not be any major complications related to airway or cardiovascular system during recovery.

Postoperatively, pulse rate and blood pressure was measured every 15 min for first hour and then half hourly for next three hours.Other than pain, the factors like postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), shivering, sedation and respiratory depression are equally important in recovery from the effects of anaesthetic drugs.The present study aimed at comparing the postoperative recovery characterstics of fentanyl and butorphanol in patients undergoing open cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia.Because no single drug is ideal, two or more drugs are used in combination to provide balanced anaesthesia. It is a common practice among anaesthesiologists to include a small dose of narcotic analgesic as part of anaesthetic technique.These narcotic agents in addition to providing analgesia also minimizes the requirement for potent anaesthetic agent during induction and maintenance of anaesthesia.BACKGROUND AND AIM: Narcotics have been used since long as a component of balanced anaesthesia, thus minimizing the anaesthetic requirement both during induction and maintenance as well as attenuating the pressor response during laryngoscopy and intubation.

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