D.) who sent missionaries throughout Arabia and the Middle East (with epistles being recorded as far as India), calling for new adherents to join the religion.
Later on, proselytisation efforts ceased, intermarriage between Druze and non-Druze was prohibited and the religion took on a new form, concealed from outsiders.
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the history of contemporary Druze based on historic, archaeological and linguistic evidence (Table 1).
These hypotheses espouse that Druze emerged from Arabian tribes such as the Tanukhs or Itureans, from Persian populations (a theory grounded in the lexical similarities between Persian and Druze texts century A. However, none of these hypotheses are supported by incontestable evidence leaving the population history of the Druze unresolved.
By this time, Druzism had taken root in north Palestine with the earliest Druze communities recorded around Mount Hermon.
Mount Hermon has remained a key location for Druze communities throughout their history, although we cannot be certain that the contemporary Druze studied here have descended from Middle Age Druze.
These studies reported that the Galilee Druze exhibit a high diversity of both X1 (15.6%) and X2 (11.1%) mitochondrial haplogroups relative to other Near Eastern populations.
More recent studies have reported that the Druze share many genetic characteristics with other Levantine populations (i.e., Palestinians and Bedouins) compared to Europeans and Central or South Asians e.g..
GPS then converts the genetic distances to geographic distances.The biogeographical analysis localised proto-Druze to the mountainous regions of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq and southeast Syria and their descendants clustered along a trajectory between these two regions.The mixed Near Eastern–Middle Eastern localisation of the Druze, shown using both modern and ancient DNA data, is distinct from that of neighbouring Syrians, Palestinians and most of the Lebanese, who exhibit a high affinity to the Levant.High similarity typically implies shared genetic ancestry with these populations, assuming that the primeval population structure of the Druze has been largely preserved through endogamous practices and limited conversions.This approach has been widely used in previous genetic studies, focusing on uniparental chromosomes.Our search for the region affiliated with the population structure of Druze focused on North Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe covering the biogeographical affinity predicted by each hypothesis (Table 1).